In the 1960s a second – much more severe and radical – exodus from the theatres set in. New performance venues were created in former factories, slaughterhouses, bunkers, street car depots, markt halls, shopping malls, fair centres, sports stadiums, on streets and subway platforms, in public parks and beer tents, on landfill sites, in auto garages and ruins, in cemeteries. Increasingly, preference was given to spaces that were not originally conceived as performance venues because they did not set any clear guidelines for the relationship between actors and spectators. These spaces constantly redefined performative relationships by refusing to allot a specific spatial segment to either group. In these spaces, performance itself regulated the relationship between actors and spectators and opened up possibilities for movement and perception. Performance generated spatiality.

Erika Fischer-Lichte, The transformative power of performance, p.109